FIPS (Federal Information Processing Standard) 140-2 is a set of standards established by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for security requirements in cryptographic modules used in government systems. Cryptographic modules are computer hardware or software that protect data through encryption or other cryptographic methods. The purpose of the FIPS 140-2 standard is to provide a level of assurance that these cryptographic modules are secure and will protect sensitive information from unauthorized access or tampering.

FIPS 140-2 security levels

The standard defines four security levels, each representing an increased security level. The levels range from minimal protection to the highest level of security available. They are intended to provide organizations with a way to choose a cryptographic module that meets their specific security requirements. The four security levels are as follows

  1. Level 1

    This level provides basic protection and is used for applications where cost is a primary consideration. The security requirements at this level are minimal and are designed to prevent the most basic attacks.

  2. Level 2

    This level provides increased security compared to Level 1 and is used for applications where security is more important than cost. This level includes additional security requirements such as key generation, storage, and operational security.

  3. Level 3

    This level offers the highest level of security available under the FIPS 140-2 standard and is used for applications that require the highest level of security. At this level, cryptographic modules must provide multiple layers of security and must be tested against a comprehensive set of attacks.

  4. Level 4

    This level provides the ultimate level of security and is used for applications that require the protection of classified information. Cryptographic modules at this level must meet stringent security requirements and be tested against various sophisticated attacks.

Level Release Date Physical Security Cryptographic Key Management Approved Algorithms
1 May 25, 2006 Basic Limited AES, DES/3DES, RC2, RC4, SHA-1/224/256/384/512, DSA, ECDSA
2 May 25, 2006 Intermediate Improved AES, DES/3DES, RC2, RC4, SHA-1/224/256/384/512, DSA, ECDSA
3 May 25, 2006 High Robust AES, DES/3DES, RC2, RC4, SHA-1/224/256/384/512, DSA, ECDSA
4 May 25, 2006 High Robust AES, DES/3DES, RC2, RC4, SHA-1/224/256/384/512, DSA, ECDSA
Table 2 : FIPS 140-2 Security Levels Comparison Chart

Security Levels Comparison based on

Physical Security

  1. Level 1

    Basic physical security mechanisms, such as tamper-evident packaging, are in place.

  2. Level 2

    Intermediate physical security mechanisms, such as tamper-evident packaging and secure power and reset controls, are in place.

  3. Level 3

    High physical security mechanisms, such as tamper-evident packaging, secure power and reset controls, and physical protection against tampering and unauthorized access, are in place.

  4. Level 4

    The highest level of physical security, with physical protection against tampering and unauthorized access and a secure environment for the module.

Cryptographic Key Management

  1. Level 1

    Limited key management, with the keys generated and used within the module.

  2. Level 2

    Improved key management, with the keys generated, stored, and used within the module, and the ability to securely update keys.

  3. Level 3

    Robust key management, with secure key generation, storage, and use, and the ability to securely update keys.

  4. Level 4

    The highest level of key management, with secure key generation, storage, use, and the ability to securely update keys, and a secure environment for the module.

Approved Algorithms

  1. Level 1, 2, and 3

    AES, DES/3DES, RC2, RC4, SHA-1/224/256/384/512, DSA, ECDSA algorithms are approved for use at each level.

  2. Level 4

    AES, DES/3DES, RC2, RC4, SHA-1/224/256/384/512, DSA, ECDSA algorithms are approved for use at this level.

It’s important to note that the specific security requirements for each level and the algorithms approved for use at each level may be subject to change as technology and security needs evolve.

FIPS 140-2 Security Levels Key Features

Cryptographic algorithms

Cryptographic algorithms play a crucial role in protecting sensitive information and are an important consideration when choosing a cryptographic module. FIPS 140-2 requires that all cryptographic algorithms used in cryptographic modules be approved by NIST and strong enough to provide the required level of security. In addition, the standard requires that cryptographic algorithms be implemented correctly in the cryptographic module to ensure the desired level of security is achieved.

Key management

Key management is a vital component of any cryptographic system, and FIPS 140-2 requires that all cryptographic modules implement secure key management processes. The standard specifies key generation, storage, and transmission requirements to ensure that cryptographic keys are protected from unauthorized access or tampering. This includes requirements for secure key storage, secure key transmission, and the use of secure key escrow processes.

Physical security

Physical security is a vital aspect of protecting cryptographic modules, and the FIPS 140-2 standard specifies requirements for the physical security of cryptographic modules. This includes requirements for the environment in which the cryptographic module must operate, such as temperature, humidity, and electromagnetic interference, and for physical protection from tampering or theft.

Operational security

Operational security refers to the security of the cryptographic module during normal operation, and the FIPS 140-2 standard specifies requirements for operational security. This includes requirements for user authentication, access control, audit logging, and protecting the cryptographic module against unauthorized access, tampering, or modification.

Testing and certification

To ensure compliance with the FIPS 140-2 standard, cryptographic modules must undergo extensive testing by an accredited third-party laboratory. The laboratory must be accredited by NIST and must follow the procedures specified in the standard. Once the cryptographic module has been tested and certified as compliant with the standard, it can be used in government systems that use cryptographic modules that meet the FIPS 140-2 security requirements.


In conclusion, using FIPS 140-2 cryptographic modules assures organizations that their cryptographic systems meet rigorous security requirements and are suitable for protecting sensitive information. By requiring strict security requirements for key management, physical security, operational security, and testing and certification, the FIPS 140-2 standard guarantees that their cryptographic systems are secure, and that sensitive information is protected against unauthorized access or tampering.

The standard provides a clear framework for evaluating cryptographic modules and helps organizations to choose a cryptographic module that meets their specific security needs.

It is important for organizations to be aware of the security requirements specified by the FIPS 140-2 standard and to choose cryptographic modules that meet the standard’s requirements. This will ensure that their cryptographic systems are secure and provide the required level of protection for sensitive information. 

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Encryption Consulting is a customer focused cybersecurity firm that provides a multitude of services in all aspects of encryption for our clients.

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Prabhat Kumar Tomar is a Cyber Intern at Encryption Consulting, working with PKIs, HSMs, and working as a consultant with high-profile clients.

Within the network, constant communication is always happening while using computer systems and software. There must be various components for this communication mechanism to function. A telephone, for example, requires a sender, a receiver, and a signal to connect the two ports. They contain unique numerical addresses that allow the system to determine where the information is transmitted.

These ports are configured to guide traffic to the appropriate destinations; in other words, they are the assistants that instruct systems engaged in determining which service is being sought. Services vary from unencrypted HTTP web traffic on port 80 to FTP on port 21, which transports data and files between servers and clients.

There are 65,535 ports, although not all of them are used daily. On the other hand, the TLS/SSL port is one of the most regularly used ports and is almost certainly utilized daily. So, what port does TLS/SSL use? The TLS/SSL port is 443, HTTPS, and employs TLS/SSL certificates to safeguard port communications. HTTP is the unsecure protocol port (port 80).

What are the most often used TCP ports?

Managing TLS/SSL certificates necessitates a thorough understanding of security and network connectivity. Knowing some of the most frequent TCP (or transmission control protocol) ports may be important.

For your convenience, we’ve created a list of these popular TCP ports and their functions.

Unsecured port numbers with their function:

  • 80, HTTP
  • 21, FTP
  • 119, NNTP
  • 389, LDAP
  • 143, IMAP
  • 110, POP3

Secured port numbers with their function:

  • 443, HTTPS
  • 990, FTPS
  • 563, NNTPS
  • 636, LDAPS
  • 993, IMAPS
  • 995, POP3S

What Is the Purpose of Port 443?

As previously stated, TLS/SSL certificates secure port 443 communications. The primary role of TLS/SSL certificates is to protect information so that online traffic or cybercriminals cannot access it. This is why many businesses choose HTTPS over HTTP to safeguard their data from being exposed or compromised while it is being transferred and received.

SSL vs. TLS and HTTP vs. HTTPS: How do they function together?


SSL certificates are a defunct word for what is now known as TLS certificates. They fundamentally provide identical security duties, yet many individuals continue to use the word SSL while others use TLS. It’s vital to keep in mind that they aren’t different, which is why certificates are commonly referred to as TLS/SSL, so that people understand that they are not different.


HTTP and HTTPS are not two distinct protocols. Rather, HTTPS is a specialized form of HTTP that employs TLS/SSL certificates. HTTPS is thus simply a safer version of HTTP that is safer to use while transferring data.

How do they function together?

The default network will begin with HTTP. To protect your network, you must install a TLS/SSL certificate on the web server that you are using. After that, the certificate will confirm your organization’s identity in order to launch the HTTPS protocol. This ensures that data is safely sent from a web server to a web browser.

Why are SSL ports necessary?

You may be asking why your network server needs an SSL port over other ports and internet connection techniques. TLS/SSL certificates will be your most dependable ticket to secure data transport. While safety is paramount, there are a few additional factors to consider:

  1. PCI compliance requires the use of HTTPS:

    In order to accept any form of online payment, you must be PCI compliant. This will also protect both your data and the information of your customers.

  2. HTTPS is faster than HTTP

    If you have a TLS/SSL certificate-protected page that is HTTPS, your information will most likely load significantly faster than it would on an HTTP website.

  3. Cybercrime

    With more businesses, consumers, and internet hackers utilizing the internet on a daily basis, it’s reasonable to assume that security is more important than ever. Using an SSL certificate port to secure your organization is one of the finest preventative actions you can do when it comes to cyber security.

Managing TLS/SSL Certificates

Keeping your apps safe frequently boils down to good TLS certificate management. The use of TLS/SSL certificates is a critical initial step. However, many businesses overlook the need to safeguard their systems against compromise and misuse.

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Encryption Consulting is a customer focused cybersecurity firm that provides a multitude of services in all aspects of encryption for our clients.

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About the Author

Prabhat Kumar Tomar is a Cyber Intern at Encryption Consulting, working with PKIs, HSMs, and working as a consultant with high-profile clients.

Quantum computers analyze enormous data sets and execute complex computations significantly faster than traditional computers. Google constructed a quantum computer in 2019 that could calculate in 3 minutes and 20 seconds. Still, regular supercomputers would have taken 10,000 years to solve the identical calculation, proving quantum edge or quantum supremacy.

While quantum computing is still in its early stages, upheavals in various areas, including cybersecurity, may occur much sooner than you think. The impact of quantum computing on cybersecurity is tremendous and game-changing.

Quantum computing shows significant promise in various fields, including weather forecasting, artificial intelligence, medical research, etc. However, it poses a substantial threat to cybersecurity, necessitating a shift in how we secure our data.

While quantum computers cannot currently break most of our present types of encryptions, we must immediately keep ahead of the risk and develop quantum-proof solutions. It will be too late if we wait till those powerful quantum computers begin breaking our encryption.

An additional reason to act now

Regardless of when commercially available quantum computers will emerge, the potential of malicious actors harvesting data is another reason to quantum-proof data now. They are already grabbing data and storing it until they can obtain a quantum computer to decipher it.

The data will have already been compromised at that point. The only way to maintain information security, particularly information that must be kept indefinitely, is to protect it today via quantum-safe key transmission.

Quantum Threat to Cybersecurity

Quantum computers will be capable of solving issues that traditional computers are incapable of solving. This involves deciphering the algorithms underlying the encryption keys that safeguard our data and the Internet’s infrastructure.

The encryption used nowadays is largely built on mathematical calculations that would take far too long to decipher on today’s machines. Scientists have been working on constructing quantum computers that can factor progressively bigger numbers since then. Consider two large integers and multiply them together to simplify this. It’s simple to calculate the product, but it’s considerably more difficult to start with a huge number and divide it into its two prime numbers. However, a quantum computer can readily factor those numbers and break the code.

Peter Shor created a quantum method (aptly titled Shor’s algorithm) that can factor in big numbers far faster than a traditional computer.

Today’s RSA encryption is extensively used for transferring critical data over the Internet and is based on 2048-bit numbers. Experts believe that breaking that encryption would require a quantum computer with up to 70 million qubits. The largest quantum computer available today is IBM’s 53-qubit quantum computer, so it may be long before that encryption to be broken.

As the speed of quantum research continues to accelerate, such a computer cannot be developed within the next 3-5 years.

For example, Google and Sweden’s KTH Royal Institute of Technology discovered “a more efficient technique for quantum computers to do the code-breaking calculations, decreasing required resources by orders of magnitude” earlier this year. Their research, featured in the MIT Technology Review, proved that a 20 million-qubit computer could break a 2048-bit number in about 8 hours. However, given the rapid speed of quantum research, such a computer cannot be developed within 3-5 years. That means that continued advances like this will keep pushing the timescale forward.

It’s worth mentioning that perishable sensitive data isn’t the major concern when it comes to the quantum encryption issue. The more serious concern is the susceptibility of information that must remain secret indefinitely, such as banking data, privacy data, national security-level data, etc. Those are the secrets that need to be protected by quantum-proof encryption right now.

Adapting Cybersecurity to Respond to the Threat

Researchers have been working hard to produce “quantum-safe” encryption in recent years. There are many unanswered problems in quantum computing, and scientists are working hard to find answers.

However, one thing is certain about the influence of quantum computing on cybersecurity: it will represent a danger to cybersecurity and current types of encryptions. To mitigate that threat, we must change how we secure our data and begin doing it now.

We must handle the quantum threat the same way we approach other security vulnerabilities: by adopting a defense-in-depth strategy that includes many layers of quantum-safe protection. Security-conscious enterprises recognize the need for crypto agility.

They are looking for crypto-diverse solutions, such as those provided by Encryption Consulting LLC, quantum-safe their encryption now and quantum-ready for tomorrow’s challenges.

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Datasheet of Encryption Consulting Services

Encryption Consulting is a customer focused cybersecurity firm that provides a multitude of services in all aspects of encryption for our clients.

Encryption Services

About the Author

Prabhat Kumar Tomar is a Cyber Intern at Encryption Consulting, working with PKIs, HSMs, and working as a consultant with high-profile clients.

In February, TikTok agreed to pay $92 million to resolve a class-action privacy lawsuit.

The plaintiffs claim TikTok obtained biometric data illegally, mined user information from unpublished draughts, and improperly shared data with third firms such as Google and Facebook.

What Happened Next?

TikTok has agreed to resolve a class-action lawsuit over the collection and use of personal data from TikTok users. This agreement was reached because of 21 lawsuits, a few of which were filed on behalf of minors, and it affects about 89 million TikTok users.

TikTok rejected all the charges made in the complaints but agreed to a $92 million settlement for affected users. “While we disagree with the statements, rather than engaging in prolonged litigation, we’d like to focus our efforts on creating a safe and pleasant experience for the TikTok community,” TikTok said in February after reaching a deal.

So, what aspects of personal information and data privacy did TikTok violate? We can’t be sure because the lawsuit was settled out of court. However, based on the charges and TikTok’s settlement, we can detect possible and likely privacy violations.

The Personal Data Problem

The plaintiffs claim TikTok obtained biometric data illegally, mined user information from unpublished draughts, and inappropriately shared data with third-party firms such as Google and Facebook.

TikTok is accused of using face recognition to obtain a competitive edge over other social media apps. According to the lawsuit, facial recognition was utilized to assess personal information like as age, gender, and race in order to recommend content.

The Illinois Biometric Information Privacy Act granted Illinois residents the opportunity to sue TikTok for utilizing their biometric information without their permission.

The suit claimed that the app mined information from drafted and unposted films and that the user’s personal data was being improperly provided to third parties.

TikTok apparently made improvements as part of the deal to avoid the lawsuit going to trial. They will erase some data; however, whether this data is unpublished draughts or biometrics is unknown.

TikTok has also stated that it will no longer gather biometric data, track user location, harvest information from user-created content, or store US citizens’ data outside the US. All of this, however, may be rectified if its privacy policies are openly published.

The Settlement

Although a $92 million settlement may appear considerable, if applied to all impacted consumers, those in the nationwide subclass would receive a compensation of $0.96 due to attorney fees.

On the other hand, Illinois residents will earn more (up to $5.75 if every eligible person files a claim). Even if only 20% of users claim a portion of the settlement, customers nationwide may only earn $4.79.

An app notice notified Eligible users of the TikTok Data Privacy Notice of Settlement. These specifics can still be seen on the TikTok data privacy settlement website.

Even though TikTok has not agreed to any privacy violations, this settlement has resulted in TikTok entering into new agreements to protect users’ personal data and biometric data.

Many individuals are concerned about TikTok’s suspected use of personal data because they were previously ignorant of the app’s privacy concerns. While the social media behemoth was able to resolve these allegations out of court, the case demonstrates customers’ growing awareness of privacy concerns.

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Datasheet of Encryption Consulting Services

Encryption Consulting is a customer focused cybersecurity firm that provides a multitude of services in all aspects of encryption for our clients.

Encryption Services

About the Author

Prabhat Kumar Tomar is a Cyber Intern at Encryption Consulting, working with PKIs, HSMs, and working as a consultant with high-profile clients.

SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) Handshake Failed error occurs when a secure connection fails to be established between a server and a client.

The term “SSL handshake” may appear enigmatic or out of context for those unfamiliar with the technology. If you’re in such a situation and need to figure out why this issue is appearing on your PC, keep reading until the end.

In this article, we will not only define an SSL handshake but also look at why this mistake occurs and what you can do to correct it.

What is an SSL Handshake?

The SSL handshake includes algorithm agreement, certificate exchange, and key exchange utilizing the shared algorithm. So, the ‘SSL handshake’ is the name given to a carefully developed method that aids in the encryption of client-server communication using cryptographic keys.

These keys are exchanged between the client and the server using one of two mutually agreed-upon shared algorithms. If an issue occurs during this process, the ‘SSL handshake failed’ error appears.

What causes the ‘SSL handshake failed’ error?

When two endpoints (server and client) fail to establish a secure connection, an SSL handshake error, also known as error 525, occurs. This can be caused by a variety of difficulties, either on the server or on the client side. If you’re seeing this error, don’t worry; no matter what’s causing it, we’ll help you fix it in no time.

Let us now look at potential solutions to the SSL handshake problem.

How to Fix the “SSL Handshake Failed” Error?

  • Check the time and date on your system

    Before you try any other solution for your SSL handshake error, we strongly advise you to check your system’s date and time. As ridiculous as it may appear, this works for most folks who encounter this type of problem. So, don’t underestimate the power of your system’s date and time settings, which may be incorrect for various reasons.

    It could be incorrect owing to carelessness, a software error caused by malware, or just because you are connecting to a server in another time zone using a VPN. If you are using a VPN, it is advised that you set the date and time to the server’s time zone. This relates to the server’s location’s date and time rather than your physical location.

    Windows users can reset the date and time as follows:

    • Click on the ‘Windows’ option.
    • Enter ‘Date and Time Settings’ and select the appropriate option.
    • Toggle the ‘set time automatically’ button to set the time automatically.
    • If you are using a VPN or need to set the time for any other reason manually, use the ‘Set the date and time manually’ option.
    Windows users can reset the date and time

    On a Mac, the same thing can be done by going to ‘Menu’ and then ‘System Preferences.’ Similar settings are available for all other operating systems.

  • Update your web browser

    You must always keep your operating system and programs up to date. Many issues, including the ‘SSL handshake failed’ error, can be avoided simply by doing this.

    Chrome users can verify this by opening the browser and clicking on the three vertical dots in the top-right corner. Next, select ‘More Tools’, and if your Chrome browser requires an update, you may find it here. If you don’t, it simply indicates that your Chrome browser is up to date.

  • Deactivate any newly installed plugins or extensions

    Most browser plugins and extensions are created by unknown people and may include harmful malware. If you recently installed one of those and are getting the SSL handshake issue, try deleting it and clearing your cache and cookies. After that, reconnect to the same website to see whether you can create a secure connection.

    Chrome users can delete the addon by following the procedures below:

    • Select the three vertical dots in the upper-right corner.
    • Select ‘Settings.’
    • Choose ‘Extensions.’
    • Select the extension you just installed and click Remove.
    Chrome Settings
  • Protocol Mismatch

    Many users encounter the SSL handshake problem because of protocol incompatibility between the server and the client. Essentially, there are several versions of the SSL/TLS protocol available, and for a successful handshake, the web server and browser must support the same version.

    The SSL handshake problem frequently appears when the server is running a protocol version significantly greater than the client machine.

    For example, if the server utilizes TLS 1.3 but the browser supports TLS 1.1, the SSL handshake will likely fail because servers do not support earlier versions. You can resolve this by restoring your browser’s original settings and using it without any plugins.

    To restore your Chrome browser’s default settings, click the three vertical dots in the top-right corner, then select ‘Settings’ and then ‘System.’ Finally, click the ‘reset settings to original default’ button to finish.

    Protocol Mismatch
  • Expired Certificate

    SSL creates an encrypted connection between the browser and the server. Whatever data is sent between these two, SSL assures its privacy and security. Because of SSL, we can walk across safe online areas as passionate internet users.

    Because security certificates have validity periods, they do expire. These dates are a crucial way of ensuring the security of SSL. The validity period governs and certifies server legitimacy, allowing your web browser to determine the server’s identity.

    You may be experiencing the handshake problem because you are attempting to access a website with an invalid certificate.


We’ve gone through some of the most effective fixes for the SSL handshake issue, which might be caused by the browser or system settings. In most cases, changing the time and date settings or deleting the problematic browser extensions resolves the issue.

Only the website owner or administrator may resolve the ‘SSL handshake failed’ issue on the server. Some typical server-side difficulties include an invalid SSL certificate, a free SSL certificate obtained from a fraudulent source, cipher suite issues, and faulty SSL certificate installation. In that scenario, you should contact the website’s owner or administrator for a quick resolution.

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Datasheet of Encryption Consulting Services

Encryption Consulting is a customer focused cybersecurity firm that provides a multitude of services in all aspects of encryption for our clients.

Encryption Services

About the Author

Prabhat Kumar Tomar is a Cyber Intern at Encryption Consulting, working with PKIs, HSMs, and working as a consultant with high-profile clients.

If you work with online payments, you are aware of the value of protecting cardholder data, particularly credit card information. The meaning of the digits on your credit card or your customer’s credit card may be something you are unaware of. This article will discuss the BIN(Bank Identification Number), which is the first four to six numbers on a credit card, as well as how to protect against BIN Fraud.

What is a BIN Number?

The first 4-6 numbers on a credit or debit card are the bank identification number (BIN), which is used to identify the card issuer. The first digit signifies the card’s key industry, and the following digits identify the card’s issuing financial institution. Tracking cards and transactions back to their users is simpler using these numbers. All the cards like gift cards, credit cards, debit cards, and charge cards have BINs.

The Bank Identification Number can be used to identify fraud instances such as card theft and identity theft. The type of card being used, location of the card issuer, and the card issuing bank can be determined using BINs. To find fraudulent charges, this information can be compared to cardholder data.

Since cards can be issued by organizations other than banks, Bank Identification Numbers (BINs) are occasionally referred to as Issuer Identification Numbers (IINs).

How do you find your Bank Identification Number?

The numbers on your card aren’t just random numbers. Your card’s bank identification number can be found in the first four to six numbers. The BIN indicates which card issuer and network are in charge of that specific card.

The Major Industry Identifier (MII), the first digit on your card, designates a broad group that the card belongs to. For instance, although the number 1 is for airline cards, the numbers 4 and 5 are for banking and financial cards, primarily Visa and Mastercard. The next three or five numbers under the BIN identify the issuing party.

The remaining numbers are the unique account identification numbers, which are not BINs. The Luhn check digit, which is the last digit on your card, is a single check digit produced by the Luhn algorithm and is used to swiftly determine whether a credit card number is legitimate.

How do BINs work?

The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) created the bank identification number to identify organizations that produce payment cards. While the ISO is an international nongovernmental organization that develops standards for numerous industries, the ANSI is a nonprofit organization (NPO) that produces business standards in the United States.

Every payment card is assigned four to six numbers at random. The card’s front features an embossed number that is printed below it. The major industry identifier is specified by the first digit. Following digit specifies the issuing organization or bank. For instance, Visa credit cards, which starts with a four, come under the category of finance and banking.

Customers inputs their card information on the payment screen when making an online transaction. The online merchant can determine which organization issued the customer’s card after receiving the first four to six digits of the card, including:

  • Brand of the card or Major Industry Identifier, such as MasterCard, Visa, American Express, and Diner’s Club.
  • Level of the card, like corporate or platinum
  • Type of Card
  • Country of the Issuing bank

When a transaction is requested by a customer, an authorization request is received by the user to verify the card and account validity and purchase amount validity. Following this procedure, the charge is either accepted or rejected. Without a BIN, the transaction cannot be completed by the credit card processing system because it will be unable to identify the customer’s funds source.

How can BINs prevent fraud?

Merchants can use BINs to check transactions and look for suspicious details like a bank location and billing address in two separate nations. The merchant can get in touch with the issuer specified by the BIN to confirm details if a transaction seems questionable.

Even though the data a BIN provides is basic, it can be used to flag some potentially fraudulent transactions as suspicious.

For example, it might not be all that odd for a company in the UK to receive an order from a client in Spain, but if the BIN revealed that the card was issued by a Canadian bank, there might be a good reason to investigate that transaction further.

The BIN and other data are used by several fraud prevention technologies to identify possible fraudulent transactions.

What further purposes do BINs serve?

Additionally, BINs offer retailers useful data that may be used to study chargebacks, client demographics, and shifting buying patterns.

Merchants can send customers personalized discounts and offers by using BIN information to determine the type of card they use.

On the other side, if a client uses a gift card, it can mean that one of their friends or family members knows they frequently make purchases from you or suspects that they might be interested in doing so. It might be a good idea to provide the consumer with information about your customer loyalty program to keep them as a customer in the future.

BIN data may also point to an issuer who is more frequently rejecting your representation packages than other banks or issuing an excessive number of chargebacks against your company. Such information can assist you in identifying any errors you may be making or in customizing your representation for that specific issuer.

What is BIN Scamming?

A fraud scheme is called a BIN scam. When a fraudster calls your bank pretending to be from your bank and informs them that your account information has been compromised, the incident takes place. To win your trust, the con artist may divulge facts to you. Once they have you, they start by asking where you bank and then attempt to verify the card number.

They ask you to confirm the remaining card digits and any other information they can acquire from you after giving you the bank identification number once they have that information.


To determine which payment cards, belong to which issuing financial institution, bank identity numbers are utilized. Aside from that, they also assist in facilitating financial transactions and guaranteeing consumers’ security against fraud and identity theft. Keeping your financial information, especially your BIN, private is crucial for this reason.

Keep in mind that your bank will never contact you by phone or email to let you know that the security of your account has been breached. Never talk to a scammer on the phone if you ever get one. Hang up instead and inform your bank.

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Datasheet of Encryption Consulting Services

Encryption Consulting is a customer focused cybersecurity firm that provides a multitude of services in all aspects of encryption for our clients.

Encryption Services

About the Author

Prabhat Kumar Tomar is a Cyber Intern at Encryption Consulting, working with PKIs, HSMs, and working as a consultant with high-profile clients.

What is an NFT?

An exclusive digital asset owned by an individual or organization is referred to as a non-fungible token (NFT). These materials reflect actual objects, ranging from works of art to tweets. Non-fungible tokens, such as the cryptocurrencies Ethereum and Bitcoin, have distinctive identification numbers. Each NFT has a unique digital signature that is kept in a smart contract and prevents equal exchange for another object. These signatures serve as evidence of an NFT’s ownership. In comparison to other blockchains that do not keep public transaction logs for each token, NFTs are a more trustworthy way to purchase and sell on the Ethereum blockchain market.

While purchasers have the chance to own original works of art that no one else has, creators have a fantastic opportunity to advertise their digital creations. This results in a finite supply of digital materials, as you can see. Indeed, this appeals to potential investors who want to fund artists and NFTs. This may, however, exclude those who need more cash to buy non-fungible tokens, which can cost anything from a few dollars to millions of dollars. 

Types of NFTs:

  • GIFs
  • Music
  • Real Estate
  • Artwork
  • Trading Cards
  • Tweets
  • Video Clips
  • In-game items
  • Photographs
  • Domain Names

What is Tokenization?

Unlike NFTs, which represent irreplaceable digital assets, tokenization refers to a method of protecting sensitive data. Particularly, a tokenization platform will trade sensitive data from clients for non-sensitive data, or “tokens.” The numbers are generated randomly in tokens and have no significance or connection to the original data. This is distinct from encrypted data, which a skilled hacker can decipher. Since there is no mathematical relationship between the token and the original data, tokens cannot be decoded. Tokenization is a reliable security method for defending sensitive consumer data from online threats like data leaks.

Whatever kind of business you run, you probably have some sensitive data that has to be protected from hackers. Your tokens can be securely kept and managed in a third-party database separate from your internal systems by working with a tokenization provider. As a result, your company can keep using the tokenized data for operational needs without having to worry about security risks from a breach or stringent compliance requirements for maintaining sensitive data in your internal environment.

Why are NFTs important?

Non-fungible tokens can be said to be a development of the concept of cryptocurrency. For many asset categories, such as real estate, artworks and lending contracts, modern finance systems include complicated trading and financing systems. NFTs advance the reinvention of this infrastructure by allowing digital representations of physical assets.

To be clear, neither the concept of using unique identification nor the idea of digital representations of real goods is new. But when these concepts are combined with the benefits of a smart contract blockchain that is impervious to manipulation, they become a potent force for change. The clearest benefit of NFTs is probably their market efficiency. A physical asset being transformed into a digital one makes the process easier and eliminates middlemen. Without the need for agents, NFTs that represent tangible or digital works of art on a blockchain enable artists to communicate with their audiences directly. Additionally, they can enhance corporate procedures.

Tokens that are non-fungible are also great for managing identities. NFTs can also be used for identity management in the digital sphere, expanding upon this use case.

How do NFTs work?

A variety of digital assets that reflect both actual and intangible real-world objects are used to produce or mint an NFT.

Owners of NFTs receive a digital file that they are completely entitled to own in place of a tangible object. There can only ever be one owner of a non-fungible token. Owners and creators can both add data to the NFT’s metadata. An artist could, for instance, digitally sign an NFT. This can increase brand recognition within the digital art community and aid in recognizing the artist’s work. People may easily authenticate and trace ownership as well as transfer tokens to new owners which is possible due to each token’s unique data.

Non-fungible tokens are additionally kept on a blockchain, which is a digital ledger that records transactions. The blockchain is used by buyers and sellers to determine who has owned a particular NFT. NFTs are normally kept on the Ethereum blockchain, however other markets may also accept them. The cryptocurrency Ethereum supports several tokens, including bitcoin, dogecoin, and NFTs.

How does Tokenization work?

A data security technique called tokenization includes replacing sensitive data with an identical non-sensitive piece of information called a token. The token includes illogically created numbers that were generated randomly and do not represent any original data. The strategy used by the provider and the requirements of the organization will ultimately determine which method is used to carry out this process.

  • Using hash function, which is non-reversible.
  • Use a number generated randomly or an index function

Regardless of the technique employed, the sensitive data will be swapped out for the token until the time comes when the original data must be utilized, such as when a merchant must make a payment. The original sensitive data will then be revealed when the token is returned, and it can then be utilized for commercial reasons.

Are NFTs safe?

Non-fungible tokens, which operate on the same blockchain as cryptocurrencies, are typically secure. NFTs are challenging to hack due to the distributed nature of blockchains, yet they are not impossible. If the platform hosting the NFT goes out of business, you could lose access to your non-fungible token, which poses a security issue for NFTs.


Non-fungible tokens are distinctive digital images of objects that exist on a blockchain. NFTs play a crucial role as the world investigates how distributed, immutable ledgers might make transacting safer and quicker. These assets are a pillar of the developing digital world, have their transaction history recorded, and can expedite commerce.

Tokenization has many advantages, including the level of difficulty attackers face when attempting to steal tokenized information. Since sensitive data that is tokenized without a token vault cannot be reversed, then this form of tokenization is completely safe from attackers. Even if the data is stolen, it cannot be reverted to back to its normal form, so it is useless to attackers. If the tokenization is done with a token vault, it is still extremely difficult for hackers to steal the information. Though the tokens are related to their plaintext, the data in the token vault still tends to be encrypted as well, just as a secondary precaution.

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Datasheet of Encryption Consulting Services

Encryption Consulting is a customer focused cybersecurity firm that provides a multitude of services in all aspects of encryption for our clients.

Encryption Services

About the Author

Prabhat Kumar Tomar is a Cyber Intern at Encryption Consulting, working with PKIs, HSMs, and working as a consultant with high-profile clients.

Read time: 5 minutes, 2 sec

CMMC stands for Cybersecurity Maturity Model Certification and is quickly gaining popularity in the IT and security communities. The government, especially the Department of Defense, uses the CMMC (Cybersecurity Maturity Model Certification) system of compliance levels to assess if a company has the security required to deal with regulated or otherwise susceptible data. Companies who want to cooperate with the DoD must be rated by CMMC and adhere to CMMC rules. Creating a CMMC framework, adhering to it, and employing CMMC best practices are typically how this is accomplished.

Let’s examine CMMC compliance in more detail, including who requires it and where your organization might fit.

What is CMMC?

The CMMC has been around for a while but was just upgraded. A corporation must reference the current CMMC framework and papers to ascertain where it falls. This may be a lengthy process; therefore, many organizations want the assistance of a knowledgeable partner to determine where they stand on the CMMC level system and whether there are any gaps or opportunities for growth.

The CMMC’s primary goal is to assess the maturity of an organization’s present cybersecurity initiatives. This involves whether the company can improve and optimize its security while simultaneously maintaining it.

For businesses in the DIB, the Cybersecurity Maturity Model Certification (CMMC) program raises the bar for cyber security. It is intended to safeguard unclassified information that the DoD shares with its contractors and subcontractors. The initiative gives the DoD more certainty that contractors and subcontractors are adhering to a set of cybersecurity criteria and integrates them into procurement programs.

Three key features of the framework:

Tiered Model

CMMC mandates that, based on the type and severity of the information, organizations with access to national security information apply cybersecurity requirements at increasingly higher levels. The program also outlines how information should be passed down to subcontractors.

Assessment Requirement

CMMC evaluations give the DoD a way to confirm that defined cybersecurity standards are being followed.

Contract-based Implementation

After CMMC is completely implemented, certain DoD contractors who deal with sensitive unclassified DoD information will need to reach a specific CMMC level to be awarded a contract.

Who requires CMMC Certification?

Organizations using DoD information must have CMMC accreditation. The organization might only require a Level 3 clearance or below if it is working with non-classified DoD information. The organization will require clearance of Level 4 or higher if it deals with some valuable information. The project, however, determines classes.

CMMC Certification Levels

The CMMC certification has a total of five levels, with Level 1 being the lowest and Level 5 being the highest.

Most businesses ought to have already attained Level 1, which includes fundamental security measures, good password practices, and antivirus software. It is the most basic type of security.

At level 5, systems and procedures are in place to audit infrastructure, spot deficiencies, and fill them. Proactive techniques are also used to detect and mitigate hazards before they materialize. The Level 5 system is continuously improved.

Under the CMMC, levels are cumulative. Consequently, Level 3 businesses will satisfy Level 3, Level 2, and Level 1 standards.

Whether they engage with the government or not, most firms ought to aim for Level 4 or Level 5 compliance. A managed services provider’s audit may be able to assist them.

Framework Components

The CMMC elements in action are:

  • Domains
  • Processes
  • Capabilities
  • Practices

Contractors eventually become certified to a certain degree as they improve in their evaluations of each of these components.

At each level of the model, federal prime contractors and subcontractors are evaluated for their compliance with the Processes and Practices as they pertain to each of the relevant Domains.

Not every Domain includes all five levels. Domains relate to any consecutive number of levels between 1 and 5, or any minimum and maximum.

How Can You Get CMMC Certification?

For the CMMC, businesses cannot self-certify. Instead, a third-party certification procedure will be required for government contractors and anyone who interacts with government organizations. The degree of maturity and preparation they meet will be determined by this third party’s assessment of their present security procedures and systems.

Most businesses will conduct a full audit before they seek to become certified since CMMC certification cannot be self-certified and requires a third-party study. A managed services provider may aid a business in navigating the CMMC framework, determining whether changes are feasible, and setting up the certification procedure itself. After the certification procedure is over, a managed services provider can also develop a strategy for raising the certification level, if necessary.

The CMMC certification is one of the most sought-after security certifications for a corporation to acquire because requirements have recently altered. The business will be able to pursue federal contracts and work with privileged information once it has received CMMC accreditation.

What if you are not working with the Government?

Your business might require CMMC compliance if working with the government is something you are interested in. According to the contract, several levels of CMMC compliance may be required. For example, many contracts simply call for Level 1 or Level 2 compliance, while other contracts may call for Level 5 compliance. Obviously, the contracts with greater CMMC certification requirements are also the ones that are most likely to pay off.

But that does not necessarily mean you do not require CMMC compliance if you aren’t dealing with government or DoD contracts. The fundamental ideas of CMMC compliance are around consistent and proactive security best practices. Even for their own piece of mind, every firm should be able to attain CMMC compliance.


According to estimates, cybercrime reduces the global GDP by more than $600 billion every year. By relying on a broad network of contractors to carry out its purpose, the Department of Defense is giving each one of them access to vital information, thus raising the DIB’s overall risk profile. DoD is aware of the cost and disproportionate amount of danger that cybercrime poses to its base of subcontractors, many of which are tiny firms without the capabilities of their bigger, prime counterparts.

Considering this, DoD released CMMC to make it easier for its whole worldwide contractor base to implement best practices in cybersecurity with a “defense in depth” strategy.

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Datasheet of Encryption Consulting Services

Encryption Consulting is a customer focused cybersecurity firm that provides a multitude of services in all aspects of encryption for our clients.

Encryption Services

About the Author

Prabhat Kumar Tomar is a Cyber Intern at Encryption Consulting, working with PKIs, HSMs, and working as a consultant with high-profile clients.

Read time: 9 minutes

Asymmetric encryption, commonly known as public-key cryptography, is based on calculations that are extremely hard to crack even with the most powerful computers available today. However, using encryption with private and public keys still has one issue. The public keys are presumed to be open, which means that anybody may access them. Nothing can prevent a malicious party from claiming ownership of a public key that is not theirs. Public Key Infrastructure can be used to solve this integrity issue.

Information can be exchanged on an insecure network, such as the internet, securely and privately using PKI. To achieve this, PKI uses two key technologies: digital signatures and digital certificates which are the key components in the certificate authority trust model.

What is a Digital Signature?

The term digital signature is comprised of two words: digital and signature, so let’s try to elaborate on each of these terms one by one.

  • What is meant by digital?

    Digital elaborates the electronic technology that generates, stores, and processes data in terms of positive and negative states. Positive is represented by the number 1 and 0 represents the non-positive. Thus the data is expressed as a string of 0’s and 1’s which is transmitted or stored with digital technology.

  • What is a Signature?

    To show whether a document is approved by us or created by us, we generally sign a document. This signature proves to the recipient that this document is coming or generated from a legitimate source. This signature present on the document signifies the authenticity of the document.

For example, When X sends a message to Y, Y wants to check the legitimacy of the message and confirm whether it is coming from X, not from some third party or malicious Z. So, Y can ask X to electronically sign the message. The identity of X is proved by this electronic signature which is called a digital signature.

Features of a Digital Signature

  1. Message Integrity

    In signing and verifying algorithms, the message’s integrity is preserved by using a hash function.

  2. Message Authentication

    The verification of the message is done by using the sender’s public key. When X sends a message to Y. The public key of X is used by Y for verification and the public key of X can’t create the same signature as Z’s private key.

  3. Message Nonrepudiation

    Non-repudiation is the guarantee that the originator of a message cannot deny any previously sent messages, commitments, or actions.

What is a Digital Certificate?

A digital certificate is a collection of electronic credentials that are used to confirm the identity of the certificate holder using encryption keys (public and private keys). These keys sign and encrypt information digitally. A digital certificate guarantees that the certificate includes a public key that belonged to the SSL requestor to whom it was issued.

A digital certificate is issued by a certificate authority. A digital certificate holds two keys: a public key and a private key. While the receiver has the recipient’s private key, the certificate contains the public key. A message that has been encrypted with a public key can only be decrypted with the mathematically linked private key. When a certificate is issued by a certificate authority, it contains the encryption algorithm, digital signature, serial number, expiry dates, and name of a certificate owner. The process of certificate issuance starts with the submission of a CSR (certificate signing request) and submission of the required information.

The verification of the domain ownership along with business registration documents is done after the information is submitted. After the verification, a digital certificate is issued by the certificate authority and needs to be installed on the server.

Who Can Issue a Digital Certificate?

The responsibility for issuing digital certificates falls on the certificate authority. They will attach their signatures to the certificates as evidence of the legitimacy and reliability of the entity that made the request. The management of domain control verification is largely under the responsibility of the certificate authority. In essence, certificate authorities are vital to the functioning of the public key infrastructure and the security of the internet.

Benefits of Digital Certificates?

Digital certificates play an important role in the cybersecurity landscape. Some of the key advantages of having a digital certificate are made up of the following:

  1. Data Security, Confidentiality, and Integrity Through Encryption

    The protection of sensitive data is one of the most significant functions that digital certificates provide. Information cannot be viewed by anybody who is not allowed to read it thanks to digital certificates. Therefore, having a digital certificate will be advantageous for people and organizations transporting vast amounts of data. Consider the use of an SSL certificate, which assures that hackers cannot intercept user data by helping to encrypt data sent between website servers and browsers.

    Additionally, digital certificates assist in resolving issues with message confidentiality and privacy. They enable private communication between parties using a public network. Digital certificates also contribute to the maintenance of data integrity by preventing intentional or unintentional tampering with the data while it is in transit.

  2. Authenticity or Identification Benefits

    Digital certificates have been at the forefront of the fight against fraudsters and fake websites that appear as authentic ones in an era of extensive data breaches and increasing cyberattacks. They show that websites and servers are exactly who they claim to be and identify every participant in the communication chain. As you are aware, before granting a digital certificate, certificate authorities investigate a company or website. The certificate details will contain all the necessary information about the website. This data is what aids in proving the legitimacy of the website.

  3. Scalability

    The same encryption strength is provided to businesses of all shapes and sizes by digital certificates such as SSL certificates. These certificates are also very scalable because they may be issued, canceled, and renewed in a matter of seconds.

  4. Reliability and Cost-effectiveness

    The trusted certificate authorities have the responsibility of issuing digital certificates. For the CA to issue a certificate, it must thoroughly investigate each applicant, meaning the organization that uses the certificate cannot be tricked by the hacker. Digital certificates also provide the necessary encryption strengths at a reasonable cost. You shouldn’t be shocked to find that most digital certificates cost around $100 or less each year.

  5. Public Trust

    Visitors to your website are worried about their security and wouldn’t take the chance of going to an unsafe website. Because of this, most of them will seek confirmation that your website is trustworthy and safe. You may utilize it in a variety of ways to gain user trust, and getting a digital certificate is the ideal option.

Digital Certificate vs. Digital Signature: What’s the Difference?

The basic difference between a digital certificate and a digital signature is that the certificate attaches the digital signature to an entity, while the digital signature must guarantee the security of the data or information from the moment it is sent. Digital certificates are used to validate the sender’s and the digital signature is used to validate the sent data.

A digital certificate is a collection of the digital or electronic credentials (file or passwords) issued by a trusted certificate authority and linked to digital messages/communications to validate the legitimacy of the sender, server, or device using the public key infrastructure (PKI). In comparison, a digital signature is a hashing approach that verifies the users’ identities and provides authenticity using a numeric string.

Using cryptographic key technology, a digital signature is simply attached to an email or document. The same hash algorithm is used by the signature to decrypt the message when it is received by the recipient.

Digital SignatureDigital Certificate
It authenticates the document’s identity.It authenticates the legitimacy of the ownership of an online medium.
An authorized agency issues it to a specific individual.It is issued after the background of the applicant is checked by the certificate authority (CA).
It guarantees that the signer of the document cannot be non-repudiated by the signer.It guarantees the security of the two parties exchanging information.
It is based on the DSS (Digital Signature Standard).It is based on the principles of the public-key cryptography standards.
A mathematical function is used in the digital signature (Hashing function).It uses personal information to identify the owner’s traces.
It is frequently used to prevent document forgery.It is used in an online transaction to determine the reliability of the sender and the data.
It is an extension of a document that serves as a substitute for a signature.It serves as a medium to validate the identity of the holder for a particular transaction.
It guarantees that both the sender and the recipient have access to the same document and data.It increases trust between customers and businesses (Certificate holders).


Both the digital signature and the digital certificate are essential components of security. In our daily lives, we use them both. So next time you visit a website don’t forget to verify whether it has a valid digital certificate or not. We at Encryption Consulting with top-of-the-line consultants provide a vast array of PKI services to easily manage and store your digital certificates.

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Datasheet of Encryption Consulting Services

Encryption Consulting is a customer focused cybersecurity firm that provides a multitude of services in all aspects of encryption for our clients.

Encryption Services

About the Author

Prabhat Kumar Tomar is a Cyber Intern at Encryption Consulting, working with PKIs, HSMs, and working as a consultant with high-profile clients.

Read time: 5 minutes, 9 seconds

An X.509 certificate is a digital certificate that defines the format of Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) certificates and provides safety against malicious network impersonators. Man-in-the-middle attacks can be easily initiated without x.509 authentication.

It is widely used for many internet protocols including SSL/TLS connections that are secure protocols for browsing the web. An X.509 certificate, which is either signed by a trusted certificate authority or self-signed, contains a public key as well as the identification of a hostname, company, or individual. It is also used in offline applications such as electronic signatures.

X.509 also defines certificate revocation lists, which is a way to distribute information about certificates that have been declared invalid by a signing authority as well as by a certification path validation algorithm.

What is a Certificate?

A digital certificate is indeed a file or an encrypted password that confirms the authenticity of a device, server, or user by utilizing PKI and cryptography.

Organizations can employ digital certificate authentication to ensure that only trustworthy devices and users can connect to their networks. Another frequent application for digital certificates is to verify the legitimacy of a website to a web browser, often known as a secure sockets layer or SSL certificate.

A digital certificate contains identifying information such as a user’s identity, company, or department, as well as the Internet Protocol (IP) address or the serial number of a device. Digital certificates contain a copy of the certificate holder’s public key, which must be matched to a matching private key to be valid.

Why use X.509 Certificates?

X.509 certificates have several beneficial properties that passwords don’t have. They prove to be advantageous over normal passwords.

  • They are phishing resistant; unlike a password, which requires the server to get the actual plain text password to verify you, an X.509 certificate authenticates you by providing a certification path validation algorithm by signing certificates by intermediate CA certificates. A phishing site receives a password that it may then use on the genuine website; X.509 authentication only provides it with a single signature from the certificate and does not provide it with the secret key required to fool you.
  • If they are reused on other sites, they pose no risk. If you use your organization password on another website, that website may collect the password or store it inefficiently, allowing it to be stolen in a breach. If you use the same certificate for numerous sites, you don’t have to depend on all of them to secure your credentials (if you use the same password on numerous locations and any of them handles it poorly, it’s exposed for all of them).
  • Typically, you will receive individual certificates for each browser or device you own. That implies that if the device is lost, the company might revoke one of them rather than all of them.
  • Similarly, there is no chance of shoulder-surfing or a user disclosing his password to colleagues. A user could export the private key, although it is far less likely than a person revealing their password to someone.
  • They provide two-factor authentication when used in conjunction with a password (‘something you know’ is a password and ‘something you have’ is a certificate)

How Do X.509 Certificates Work?

The Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) is the basis for X.509 standards. Using ASN, the X.509 certificate format uses a related public and private key pair to encrypt and decrypt a message.

The CA issues an X.509 certificate to an entity, and that certificate is attached to it like a photo ID badge. Unlike insecure passwords, they cannot be lost or stolen. Using the badge analogy, you can easily imagine how authentication works: the certificate is “flashed” like an ID at the resource requiring authentication.

Public key Infrastructure Basics

A PKI contains a string of randomly generated numbers that can be used to encrypt a message. Only the selected recipient can decrypt and read this encrypted message and can only be deciphered and read by using the associated private key, which is also made of a long string of random numbers.

This private key is kept private and is only known to the recipient. As the public key is published for all the world to see, a complex cryptographic algorithm that generates random numeric combinations of varying lengths is used to create a public key and pair them with an associated private key.

The following are the most often used algorithms for generating public keys:

Attributes of X.509 certificate

Each certificate has several attributes and fields that contain information about the user, the issuer, and the cryptographic parameters of the certificate itself.

  • Version

    The X.509 version is associated with the certificate.

  • Serial number

    The unique serial number assigned by the CA to each issued certificate.

  • Algorithm information

    The cryptographic algorithm or a private key algorithm, usually RSA 2048.

  • Issuer name

    The issuing CA’s name

  • Validity period

    The period in which the certificate will be considered valid.

  • Subject distinguished name

    The name of the device that the certificate is being issued to.

  • Subject public key information

    The public key linked to the identity.

    • A Common applications of X.509 certificates

      Many internet protocols rely on X.509, and PKI technology is used in a variety of applications every day, including Web server security, digital signatures, document signing, and digital identities.

      Web Server Security with TLS/SSL Certificates

      PKI serves as the foundation for the secure sockets layer (SSL) and transport layer security (TLS) protocols, which underpin HTTPS secure browser connections. Without SSL certificates or TLS to create secure connections, attackers might intercept communications and read their contents through the Internet or other IP networks using a variety of attack vectors, such as man-in-the-middle assaults.

      Digital Signatures and Document Signing

      PKI-based certificates may be used for digital signatures and document signing in addition to securing messaging.

      Digital signatures are a sort of electronic signature that uses PKI to validate the signer’s identity as well as the integrity of the signature and the document. Because digital signatures are generated by producing a hash, which is encrypted using the sender’s private key, they cannot be manipulated or reproduced in any manner.

      This cryptographic verification mathematically connects the signature to the original message to verify that the sender has been verified and that the message has not been changed.

      Code signing

      Code Signing enables application creators to provide a layer of confidence by digitally signing apps, drivers, and software programs, allowing end-users to verify that the code they get has not been altered or compromised by a third party. These digital certificates feature the software developer’s signature, the firm name, and timestamping to ensure the code is secure and trustworthy.

      Client authentication

      Client-Certificate Authentication is a mutual certificate-based authentication in which users provide digital certificates compliant with the X.509 standards to the servers as a component of the TLS protocol handshake to prove their identities; this is also recognized as mutual or two-way TLS authentication.

      While TLS’s principal role on the Internet is to support encryption and trust, enabling a web browser to validate the authenticity of the website, the protocol also works in reverse, with X.509 client certificates used to authenticate a client to the webserver.

      Managing X.509 Certificates

      One of the most important components of X.509 certificates is their effective management at scale through automation. Companies that do not have outstanding people, procedures, and technology in place expose themselves to security breaches, outages, brand harm, and critical infrastructure failures.


      X.509 certificates are key assets to build and maintain digital trust in the digital world. If these certificates are not effectively managed, companies can be at risk of breaches and failed audits.

      Take a list of your existing X.509 certificate management capabilities with us at Encryption Consulting and determine whether a new solution is necessary to keep up with the constant growth of your digital certificates.

Free Downloads

Datasheet of Encryption Consulting Services

Encryption Consulting is a customer focused cybersecurity firm that provides a multitude of services in all aspects of encryption for our clients.

Encryption Services

About the Author

Prabhat Kumar Tomar is a Cyber Intern at Encryption Consulting, working with PKIs, HSMs, and working as a consultant with high-profile clients.

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